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Analogies

Level 4 Questions

     

1.   SCRAWL : CALLIGRAPHY ::
 

      1.  gibber: oratory
      2.  doodle: draughtsmanship
      3.  draw: paint
      4.  limerick: ode
      5.  letter: hagiography
 
Answer : 2
 

Explanation :
 
Scrawl is careless writing, while calligraphy is the art of beautiful handwriting. The two actions are similar but ranging from careless to artistic. (A) Gibber is to talk fast and make meaningless sounds, while oratory is public speaking. The two actions cannot be termed similar, i.e., talking to someone versus public speaking. (B) Doodle is making meaningless scrawls/scribbles, while draughtsmanship is careful and exact preparation of diagrams and drafts. This is an 122$%$analogous relationship as given above. (C) Draw and paint are similar actions, though not related as given above. (D) Limerick and ode are both different types of poems. (E) Hagiography is the writing of the lives of saints. Letter and hagiography are not related as in the above given context.

2.   SHRUG : INDIFFERENCE ::
 

      1.  jump: excitement
      2.  scowl: pleasure
      3.  snort: laughter
      4.  nod: agreement
      5.  sob: sorrow
 
Answer : 4
 

Explanation :
 
Shrug is a gesture indicating indifference. (A) Jump is not a gesture, nor does it always indicate excitement. (B) Scowl is an expression indicating bad temper, not pleasure. (C) Snort is a noise indicating rage, not laughter. (D) Nod is a gesture indicating agreement; this is 122$%$analogous to the relationship of the original pair. (E) Sob is not a gesture, but an act of crying, though it does express sorrow and pain.

3.   PASTICHE : PARODY ::
 

      1.  burlesque: plagiarism
      2.  portrait: caricature
      3.  sign: forgery
      4.  engross: duplicate
      5.  satire: commentary
 
Answer : 2
 

Explanation :
 
Pastiche is a work of art of literature, in imitation of the style of someone else. 1429$%$Parody is imitation of someone else's style for the purpose of amusement. The relationship is that while both are essentially similar acts, the latter is for the purpose of humor or amusement. (A) 282$%$Burlesque is an imitation of something for the purpose of amusement, while plagiarism is copying someone else's ideas for use as one's own (i.e., an act of cheating). They are not related in the given context. (B) A portrait is somebody's sketch, while caricature is somebody's sketch exaggerating some aspects in order to amuse or draw out humor. It is an 122$%$analogous relationship to the one given above. (C) Sign is an original act, while forgery is an imitation with the intention to fool or cheat. (D) 738$%$Engross means to take up all one's time. It is not related to 667$%$duplicate in the given context. (E) A 1680$%$satire is a form of writing, ridiculing or criticizing something, while commentary is a factual account. Neither is for the purpose of pure humor, as seen above.

4.   SERUM : INOCULATE ::
 

      1.  medicine: cure
      2.  unguent: apply
      3.  poison: antidote
      4.  nostrum: heal
      5.  vaccine: vaccinate
 
Answer : 5
 

Explanation :
 
Serum is fluid taken from the blood of an animal, which has been made 1082$%$immune to a disease, and is used for inoculations, that is, for the prevention of a specific disease. (A) Medicine is used to bring about a cure, after the onset of the disease. It is not used as a preventive. (B) Unguent is a soft substance used as an ointment or for lubrication. It is used by application, so 'apply' is not the effect produced by an unguent. (C) An 139$%$antidote is a cure for a poison; they are not related in the given sense. (D) Nostrum is used in the context of quack remedy, an all-purpose remedy. It is used to heal something, but the efficacy is doubtful. (E) A vaccine is used to vaccinate , that is, to prevent or immunize against a particular disease. The relationship is 122$%$analogous to the one given in the original pair.

5.   DINGY : CHEER ::
 

      1.  sprawling : compactness
      2.  airy : ventilation
      3.  verdant : color
      4.  ebullient : mockery
      5.  wisdom : cleverness
 
Answer : 1
 

Explanation :
 
572$%$Dingy is something that is not fresh or cheerful. So 572$%$dingy and cheer are antonymous words. (A) Sprawling (widely spread out) and compactness are also antonymous words, as given above. (B) Airy, having plenty of fresh air moving through, and ventilation are similar words. (C) 2040$%$Verdant means fresh and green; it is not related only to color. (D) Ebullient and mockery do not have a directly antonymous relationship as the one above. (E) Wisdom and cleverness are similar in meaning, with a difference in terms of depth, but they are certainly not antonymous .

6.   PULMONARY : LUNGS ::
 

      1.  cardiac: valves
      2.  venal: arteries
      3.  gastroenterological: digestion
      4.  nephritic: kidneys
      5.  glandular: hormones
 
Answer : 4
 

Explanation :
 
Pulmonary is something which is connected with the lungs, e.g., pulmonary arteries conveying blood to the lungs. (A) Cardiac is something connected with the heart, not just the valves in the heart. (B) 2027$%$Venal is something connected with money, or done for a payment, it is not connected with the arteries or even with veins. (C) Gastroenterological is an inflammation of 1802$%$stomach and intestines, it is not connected to digestion alone. (D) Nephritic is something connected with the kidneys, just as pulmonary is associated with the lungs. So this is the correct option. (E) Glandular is something connected with the glands (organs which secrete chemical substances in the body), not with hormones.

7.   CREPE : CLOTH ::
 

      1.  gauze: net
      2.  millet: cereal
      3.  echelon: rank
      4.  ream :paper
      5.  fall: linen
 
Answer : 2
 

Explanation :
 
Crepe is a type of cloth, e.g., a crepe bandage. (A) Gauze and net are similar net-like fabric or material. (B) Millet is a type of cereal; they are related as are crepe and cloth. (C) 675$%$Echelon is a step-like formation of something, e.g., aircrafts etc., it is not related to rank. (D) Ream is a measure of paper (VS, 500; UK, 480). (E) Fall expresses the way a thing or furnishing hangs; it is not a type of fabric, as in the given relationship.

8.   ABLATION : ICEBERG ::
      1.  erosion: rock
      2.  machinery: wears
      3.  cloth: tears
      4.  tissue: ages
      5.  sediment: river
 
Answer : 1
 

Explanation :
 
Ablation is the process by which an iceberg gets gradually eroded and melts down. (A) Erosion is a phenomenon or process of wearing down a rock. The 122$%$analogy is similar to the given one. (B) Machinery suffers wear-and-tear while in use, but the arrangement of words is not in the given sequence, and wear-and-tear is not a natural process as ablation is. (C) ?Cloth and tears' are related in the manner of ?machinery and wears', not as in the given relationship. (D) Tissues (skin tissues) wear out with age, but there is simultaneous regeneration of new tissues. ?Tissue and age' are also wrongly sequenced as compared to ?ablation and iceberg'. (E) A river causes sedimentation; sedimentation is an outcome, not a phenomenon or process as understood above.

9.   ECLOGUE : POEM ::
 

      1.  dirge: funeral
      2.  elegy: praise
      3.  madrigal: song
      4.  burlesque: play
      5.  aria: andante
 
Answer : 3
 

Explanation :
 
Eclogue is a pastoral poem, that which is associated with shepherds and country life. It is a particular instance or type of the kind described by the second word. (A) 575$%$Dirge is a song sung at a burial or one's funeral. (B) 702$%$Elegy is a poem or song of sorrow, in praise of the dead. (C) Madrigal is a part song, for several voices without instrumental accompaniment. It is a particular instance or type, as in the above relationship. (D) A 282$%$burlesque is an imitation of something or one's behavior for the purpose of amusing people or having fun. It is not exactly a type of play. (E) Aria is a melody, especially solo for voice in an opera, while andante is a piece of music played in moderately slow time. Aria is not an instance of andante.

10.   Void: Plenitude::
 

      1.  vacuum: space
      2.  drought: abundance
      3.  night: day
      4.  enmity: friendship
      5.  thankfulness: gratitude
 
Answer : 2
 

Explanation :
 
Void means emptiness; plenitude means fullness. Drought means famine, a time of acute scarcity. Abundance means plentifulness.

11.   Emancipation: Slave::
 

      1.  work: employee
      2.  vastness: space
      3.  affluence: poor country
      4.  success: seeker
      5.  inspiration: poet
 
Answer : 3
 

Explanation :
 
Emancipation means freedom. Because of its poverty, a poor country is in a sort of bondage, and affluence means wealth - which would mean freedom for a poor country. In both of these analogies there is no necessity that the slave is actively seeking emancipation or the poor country is actively seeking affluence. Whereas the seeker-success analogy implies an active seeking.



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